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APA Quick Referencing: Rules

Punctuation Rules for End-Text References

Type Rule Example
 Colon  Place a colon between the title and subtitle of a book  Advertising: Principles and
 Round Brackets  Place the year of publication or creation in round brackets  (2013)
 Round Brackets  For audio visual materials use round brackets for producer or director  (Producer) (Director)
 Round Brackets  Place the abbreviation for editor or editors in round brackets  (Ed.) (Eds.)

 Round Brackets

 Place the edition number of a book in round brackets  (2nd ed.)
 Round Brackets  Place the issue number of an magazine or journal in round brackets  (5)
 Square Brackets  Place the format description where appropriate in square brackets  [Image]
 Fullstops  Generally, the various parts of a reference should be separated by fullstops  Jones, B. (2012). Mammals.
Little Hills Press.
 Capital Letters  Capitalise only the first word of the title and subtitle (if any), and proper names  Living and working in Australia: A guide for migrants.
 Italics  Place titles of books, magazines, journals, newspapers, webpages and DVDs in italics  Digital photography
 Italics  Place the volume number of a journal in italics  35


© Thinkstock 2013 used under licence



If no date is available, place (n.d.) in the date position.
                          Image courtesy S. Miles



Everything you have cited in-text appears in your Reference List.

The exceptions are lecture notes and personal communications that are cited in-text only.