Place of publication now requires the country name after the city, except for publishers in the United States where the city name will be followed by the US state abbreviation, for example Houston, TX ; Los Angeles, CA ; London, England ; Melbourne, Australia.
Hyperlinks can remain in the Reference List
This guide is designed to help you with referencing your sources for your coursework at North Metropolitan TAFE. It does not apply to the use of information for commercial purposes.
You will notice in referencing information that the terms cite/citation are often used interchangeably with ‘reference’.
Luckily for students now, most online resources (ebooks, databases, library catalogues, video platforms) have an embedded cite/citation tool which will generate a reference (citation) for you.
Too easy! Just remember that it is your responsibility to ensure that the reference generated is correct. Check it against the examples in this guide.
Microsoft Word has a citation program that automatically generates in-text references and reference lists.
But remember, you still have to locate the information and place it in the correct field to generate an accurate reference.
Referencing is a method of acknowledging sources of information that you have used in your assignments. It is an important part of academic writing.
You must acknowledge any source you use both within the text of your assignment (also known as an in-text reference) and by listing it at the end of your assignment (also known as an end-text reference or reference list).
To acknowledge the source of information and therefore avoid plagiarism.
To show the breadth of your research.
To allow the reader to find and verify the information used.
Each time you use information from another source you must include an in-text reference to that source.
Diabetes WA. (2019a). What's your risk? Retrieved from https://diabeteswa.com.au/whats-your-risk /
In-text (Diabetes WA, 2019a)
Diabetes WA. (2019b).What is blood glucose? Retrieved from https://diabeteswa.com.au/manage-your-diabetes/monitoring-blood-glucose/what-is-blood-glucose /
In-text (Diabetes WA, 2019b)
If your reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, American Psychological Association can be abbreviated to APA. You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation would help avoid cumbersome repetition and will appear more than three times in the paper.
First in-text reference (American Psychological Association [APA], 2011) then after this it would just be (APA, 2011) and don’t put the (APA) in the Reference List.
American Psychological Association. (2011). Dollars and sense: Talking to your children about the economy. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/children-economy.aspx
Points to Note
A quotation is an exact reproduction from another source. They are word for word copies of another persons work.
Quotations of less than 40 words are set out wiithin the body of the text and enclosed with double quotation marks " ".
... children are very adaptable. However, "it is no surprise that we are much better at recognising negative signals than positives ones" (Smith, 2011, p. 36).
Quotations of more than 40 words should be set out in a block, commencing on a new line and indented from the left hand margin 5 spaces. Quotation marks are not used. Double space the entire quotation.
Governments have occasionally produced reports on:
The merits of privatization, incorporating 'expert' assessments of
likely sale and retention values. This is progress, of a kind. It does,
after all, provide the community with opportunities to scrutinise major
proposals for asset sales - opportunities long available in the
private sector. (Walker, 2010, p. 140)
Point to note:
Avoid overuse of direct quotations. It is best to paraphrase or summarise information from other sources, as this shows your understanding of the information and your ability to use it in your own work.
Direct quotations can be used for:
There are various ways to cite quotes. Read the APA Style Blog for suggestions.
The use of capital letters in titles varies:
Working with refugee young people: An Australian nurses's perspective
Copying the words and ideas of others without acknowledging correct ownership is called plagiarism.The solution is to learn to correctly reference words or ideas that you have copied within your report, essay or literature review.
When writing assignments you must acknowledge quotations, information and ideas taken from other authors through a bibliography or list of references.
You must acknowledge your sources:
Plagiarism occurs when you use other people’s ideas, words or data as if they were your own. Deliberate plagiarism is a serious act of academic misconduct. How to avoid plagiarism - always note where you found your information and keep this information attached to your preparation notes for each assignment.
For more information on plagiarism and correct assignment writing techniques, e.g. paraphrasing, summarising and quoting see the Assignment Help guide.
[Format] - Only use if the format is important for identification and retrieval. This is included in square brackets, for example:
Lang, k.d. (2008). Shadow and the frame. On Watershed [CD]. New York, NY: Nonesuch Record.
Below are some of the more common format types.
[Blog post] or [Blog comment]
These abbreviations are commonly used in referencing:
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|et al.||and others|
United States 2 letter state abbreviations https://pe.usps.com/text/pub28/28apb.htm
Have trouble with referencing a format? Search the blog for assistance. APA experts publish weekly posts to talk about APA Style and how it works in a variety of topics.
ALWAYS if you:
Quote - use someone else's exact words
Paraphrase - convert someone else's ideas to your own words
Summarise - create a brief account of someone else's ideas
Copy - statistics, figures, tables or images
When Do You NOT Need to Reference?
When you are describing your own experiences or observations.
When you are using general or common knowledge.