Referencing is a method of acknowledging sources of information that you have used in your assignments. It is an important part of academic writing.
You must acknowledge any source you use both within the text of your assignment (also known as an in-text reference) and by listing it at the end of your assignment (also known as an end-text reference or reference list).
To acknowledge the source of information and therefore avoid plagiarism.
To show the breadth of your research.
To allow the reader to find and verify the information used.
Each time you use information from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Point to Note
(Gardner, 2003, p. 27)
Copying the words and ideas of others without acknowledging correct ownership is called plagiarism.The solution is to learn to correctly reference words or ideas that you have copied within your report, essay or literature review.
When writing assignments you must acknowledge quotations, information and ideas taken from other authors through a bibliography or list of references.
You must acknowledge your sources:
Plagiarism occurs when you use other people’s ideas, words or data as if they were your own. Deliberate plagiarism is a serious act of academic misconduct. How to avoid plagiarism - always note where you found your information and keep this information attached to your preparation notes for each assignment.
For more information on plagiarism and correct assignment writing techniques, e.g. paraphrasing, summarising and quoting see the Assignment Help guide.
A quotation is an exact reproduction from another source. They are word for word copies of another persons work.
Quotations of less than 40 words are set out wiithin the body of the text and enclosed with double quotation marks " ".
... children are very adaptable. However, "it is no surprise that we are much better at recognising negative signals than positives ones" (Smith, 2011, p. 36).
Quotations of more than 40 words should be set out in a block, commencing on a new line and indented from the left hand margin 5 spaces. Quotation marks are not used. Double space the entire quotation.
Governments have occasionally produced reports on:
The merits of privatization, incorporating 'expert' assessments of
likely sale and retention values. This is progress, of a kind. It does,
after all, provide the community with opportunities to scrutinise major
proposals for asset sales - opportunities long available in the
private sector. (Walker, 2010, p. 140)
Point to note:
Avoid overuse of direct quotations. It is best to paraphrase or summarise information from other sources, as this shows your understanding of the information and your ability to use it in your own work.
Direct quotations can be used for:
There are various ways to cite quotes. Read the APA Style Blog for suggestions.
Points to Note
Gardner, P. (2003). Nursing process in action. New York: Thompson.
The use of capital letters in titles varies:
Articles and chapters
Working with refugee young people: An Australian nurses's perspective
Periodicals (journals, newspapers and magazines)
Australian Journal of Early Childhood
Books, websites and web documents (and other main titles)
Churchill's desert war: The road to El Alamein
ALWAYS if you:
Quote - use someone else's exact words
Paraphrase - convert someone else's ideas to your own words
Summarise - create a brief account of someone else's ideas
Copy - use statistics, figures, tables or images
You do not need to cite when:
You are describing your own experiences or observations.
You are using general or common knowledge.