Referencing is a method of acknowledging sources of information that you have used in your assignments. It is an important part of academic writing.
You must acknowledge any source you use both within the text of your assignment (also known as an in-text reference) and by listing it at the end of your assignment (also known as an end-text reference or reference list).
To acknowledge the source of information and therefore avoid plagiarism.
To show the breadth of your research.
To allow the reader to find and verify the information used.
This guide is for students at North Metropolitan TAFE and is based on the APA 6th edition style.
It provides information and examples to help reference different sources of information when writing assignments.
Each time you use information from another source you must include an in-text citation to that source.
Point to Note
(Gardner, 2003, p. 27)
Points to Note
Gardner, P. (2003). Nursing process in action. New York: Thompson.
A quotation is an exact reproduction from another source. They are word for word copies of another persons work.
Quotations of less than 40 words are set out wiithin the body of the text and enclosed with double quotation marks " ".
... children are very adaptable. However, "it is no surprise that we are much better at recognising negative signals than positives ones" (Smith, 2011, p. 36).
Quotations of more than 40 words should be set out in a block, commencing on a new line and indented from the left hand margin 5 spaces. Quotation marks are not used. Double space the entire quotation.
Governments have occasionally produced reports on:
The merits of privatization, incorporating 'expert' assessments of
likely sale and retention values. This is progress, of a kind. It does,
after all, provide the community with opportunities to scrutinise major
proposals for asset sales - opportunities long available in the
private sector. (Walker, 2010, p. 140)
Point to note:
Avoid overuse of direct quotations. It is best to paraphrase or summarise information from other sources, as this shows your understanding of the information and your ability to use it in your own work.
Direct quotations can be used for:
There are various ways to cite quotes. Read the APA Style Blog for suggestions.
The use of capital letters in titles varies:
Articles and chapters
Working with refugee young people: An Australian nurses's perspective
Periodicals (journals, newspapers and magazines)
Australian Journal of Early Childhood
Books, websites and web documents (and other main titles)
Churchill's desert war: The road to El Alamein
|Editor (Editors)||Ed. (Eds)||second edition||2nd ed.|
|and others||et al.|
ALWAYS if you:
Quote - use someone else's exact words
Paraphrase - convert someone else's ideas to your own words
Summarise - create a brief account of someone else's ideas
Copy - use statistics, figures, tables or images
You do not need to cite when:
You are describing your own experiences or observations.
You are using general or common knowledge.