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APA Referencing Guide: Online Resources & Social Media

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of page. https://xxxx
Diabetes WA. (2019). What's your risk? https://diabeteswa.com.au/whats-your-risk/ 

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

(Diabetes WA, 2019)

 

Referring to more than one work by the same author in the same yearIf there is more than one work by the same author, the end-text references are to be listed in date order. If the author has more than one work in the one year, use lower case letters of the alphabet.

Reference List

Diabetes WA. (2019a). What's your risk? https://diabeteswa.com.au/whats-your-risk/ 

Diabetes WA. (2019b). What is blood glucose? https://diabeteswa.com.au/manage-your-diabetes/monitoring-blood-glucose/what-is-blood-glucose/  

In-text 

(Diabetes WA, 2019a)

(Diabetes WA, 2019b) 

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. or Corporate Author. (n.d.). Title of page. https://xxxx
The Kidney Foundation of Canada. (n.d.). 
Early detection and prevention. https://www.kidney.ca/page.aspx?pid=332

 

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

(The Kidney Foundation of Canada, n.d.)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of page. https://xxxx

Queensland Government. (n.d.). Riversleigh rocks! unearth Australia’s prehistoric past. https://parks.des.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0022/168232/world-heritage-riversleigh-poster-a3.pdf  

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)
(Queensland Government, n.d.)

Reference List

Note: When an online reference work is constantly updated and is not archived, use n.d. as the year of publication and include a full retrieval date.

Corporate Author (Year) Entry Title. In Website title. https://xxxx

Merriam-Webster (n.d.) Diabetes.In Merriam-Webster.com online dictionary. Retrieved January 24, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diabetes#medicalDictionary

In-text
(Corporate Author, Year)
(Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of article. In Editor/s Initial. Editor/s Surname (Ed.), Title of Encyclopedia. https://xxxx
Hurthouse, R., & Pettigrove, G. (2016). Virtue ethics. In E. Zalta (Ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-virtue/

In-text

(Author Surname & Author Surname, Year)
(Hurthouse & Pettigrove, 2016)

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. or Corporate author. (Year). Title of Image [Image]. https://xxxx
Mapswire. (2018). Physical Map of Australia [Image]. https://mapswire.com/australia/physical-maps/

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

Place near image (underneath if possible)

(Mapswire, 2018)

 

Note: Check with your lecturer to see if they require Blackboard to be added to the Reference List.  If they don't require it then treat it as Personal Communication (see "Other Sources" tab).

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. or Corporate Author. (Year). Title of page: Unit code. Blackboard. https://xxxx

North Metropolitan TAFE. (2019). Session 11 – Research and clinical practice; media and implementation: CHCPRP0L003 [PowerPoint slides]. Blackboard. https://blackboard.northmetrotafe.wa.edu.au/

Note: Add [PowerPoint slides] in square brackets after title if appropriate.

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)
(North Metropolitan TAFE, 2019)

Note: Aliases (Screen names) may be used in place of the Author Surname

Blog Post

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Day of post). Title of post. https://xxxx
This American Life. (2018, December 28). The room of requirement. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/664/the-room-of-requirement

In-text 

(Author Surname, Year)
(This American Life, 2018)

 

Blog Comment

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Day of comment). Re: Original Blog Post. https://xxxx
Andrewp3. (2016, March 12). Re: A warming earth is making it harder to study Mars. 
     https://www.wired.com/2016/12/warming-earth-making-harder-study-mars/

In-text

(Author Surname,Year of Post, para. no.)
..."wish we knew whether or not Mars is lifeless...." (Andrewp3, 2016, para 7.).

Note: Title is not italicised

Note: Aliases (Screen names) may be used in place of the Author Surname

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. https://xxxx
Rissian, L.C. (Producer). (2012, May 4). Twelve parsecs [Audio podcast]. https://itunes.apple.com

 

In-text

(Author Surname, Year)
(Rissian, 2012)

Note: Aliases (Screen names) may be used in place of the Author Surname

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Tweet]. Site Name. https://xxxx

Reuters Top News [@ Reuters]. (2016, November 1). Inside David Bowie's art collection [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/i/moments/79357609028915200

 

In-text 
(Author Surname, Year) OR Author Surname
 (Year)

(Reuters Top News, 2016) OR Reuters Top News (2016)...

 

Note: Title (in italics). Use the content of the Tweet up to the first 20 words.

Note: Aliases (Screen names) may be used in place of the Author Surname

Reference List

Author Surname, Initial(s).or Corporate Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of video in italics [Video]. Site Name. https://xxxx
Headspace Australia. (2018, October 1). Tips for good mental health [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7634-yFjurA

 

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

(Headspace Australia, 2018)

Reference list format - TED Talk

1. TED Talk from the TED website: 

Author Surname, Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title of video in italics [Video]. Site Name. https://xxxx 

Reference list: 

Palmer, A. (2013, March). The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking 

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

(Palmer, 2013) 

OR

Palmer (2013)

2. TED Talk from YouTube: 

TED. (Year, Month Day). Title of video in italicsSpeaker [Video]. Site Name. https://xxxx 

Reference list:

TED. (2014, June 27). How to speak so that people want to listen: Julian Treasure [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIho2S0ZahI 

In-text

(Author Surname or Corporate Author, Year)

(TED, 2014)

OR

TED (2014)

Tips: 

When the TED Talk comes from TED's website (as with the Palmer example), use the name of the speaker as the author. When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here TED) as the author. 

 

Private Facebook posts are treated as Personal Communication (see "Other Sources" tab)  but Public Facebook pages require references.

Note: Aliases (Screen names) may be used in place of the Author Surname

Reference List

Author. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Description of audiovisuals]. Site Name. https://xxxx

Gaiman, N. (2019, January 30). Stories are an essential part of who we are. They can tell us more about ourselves and our world that anything else can [Video]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/neilgaiman/videos/210894339761745 

Note: Titles are italicised. Delete the rest of the web address after the number string.

In-text

(Author Name, Year)

(Gaiman, 2019)

Reference List

Name [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Photographs]. Instagram. https://xxxx

APA Style [@officialapastyle]. (2018, December 5). Welcome to the official Instagram for #APAStyle! We’re here to help you with your APA Style questions [Photographs]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bq-A-dvBLiH/

Note: Titles are italicised

In-text 

(Name, Year of post) OR Name (Year of post)
(APA Style, 2018) OR APA Style (2018)...

APA Style 2018

 

Reference List

Creator. (Year). Title of software or Program (Version number) [Mobile app]. Publisher Name or App Store. https://xxxx
Skyscape. (2013). Skyscape medical resources (Version 1.17.42) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://itunes.apple.com

 

In-text

(Creator, Year)
(Skyscape, 2013)

Cochrane Library does not have a built-in citation generator. You may use the following template for citing articles found using this database. To find the issue and page ranges, you will need to view the PDF (click PDF and then Full PDF on the left).

Reference List

Author Last Name, Author Initials. (Date). Title of article. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI

Sample APA Citations for the Cochrane Database

Chunhu Shi, Dumville, J., Cullum, N., Rhodes, S., McInnes, E., En Lin Goh, Norman, G., (2021). Beds, overlays and mattresses for preventing and treating pressure ulcers: an overview of Cochrane Reviews and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewshttps://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013761.pub2

Chunhu Shi, Dumville, J., Cullum, N., Rhodes, S., McInnes, E., En Lin Goh, Norman, G., (2021).  Foam surfaces for preventing pressure ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewshttps://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013621.pub2

Gillespie, B.M., Walker R.M., Latimer, S.L., Thalib, L., Whitty, J.A., McInnes, E., Chaboyer, W.P. (2020).  Repositioning for pressure injury prevention in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewshttps://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009958.pub3

Remember Best Practice is to reference from the main source documents - if there is a link from Cochrane out to PubMed and PubMed has the citation for this document then go with that citation. You can always mention that the Systematic Review or Randomised Control Trial is also published in the Cochrane Library.  For exampleThe link below will take you to the Cochrane page for the article see if you can find the link to PubMed and then find the APA citation tool.  If you need help with this contact the library.

Association of a Perioperative Multicomponent Fall Prevention Intervention With Falls and Quality of Life After Elective Inpatient Surgical Procedures. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviewshttps://www.cochranelibrary.com/central/doi/10.1002/central/CN-02386565/full

The PubMed APA reference for this article is:

Fritz, B. A., King, C. R., Mehta, D., Somerville, E., Kronzer, A., Ben Abdallah, A., Wildes, T., Avidan, M. S., Lenze, E. J., Stark, S., & ENGAGES Research Group (2022). Association of a Perioperative Multicomponent Fall Prevention Intervention With Falls and Quality of Life After Elective Inpatient Surgical Procedures. JAMA network open5(3), e221938. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.1938

 

Some assessments do not permit the use of ChatGPT or other generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) tools.

Confirm with your course lecturer what is permitted for a specific assessment prior to commencing.

Please note: It is likely that the information about using and referencing ChatGPT and other generative AI tools in assignments and publications will continue to be updated. We recommend checking this page regularly to keep up with any changes.

In the APA style, when you have quoted or paraphrased text generated by an AI, you must include an in-text citation and reference list entry acknowledging the tool you have used.

ChatGPT

The in-text citation and reference for ChatGPT are formatted as follows:

In-text

Author of generative AI model, Year of version used

Example:

(OpenAI, 2023)

or

OpenAI (2023)

If quoting: 

Use quotation marks to distinguish between your own words and the words generated by the tool.

In-text example:

"The Gregorian calendar was first introduced in the year 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII. It was designed as a modification of the Julian calendar, which had been in use since 45 BCE" (OpenAI, 2023).

or

.....as generated by the generative AI program (OpenAI, 2023)

 

Reference List

Author of AI model used. (Year of AI model used). Name of AI model used (Version of AI model used) [Type or description of AI model used]. Web address of AI model used

Example on Reference list

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (May 24 Version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

You may also put the full  transcript of a response from ChatGPT in an appendix of your assessment or in online supplemental materials so your lecturer has access to the exact text that was generated. 

 


 

Generating new works with generative AI platforms (Copyright)

Other Generative AI: 

When determining who owns the Copyright of Generative AI created content it is necessary to look at the individual AI platform the content is generated from. Some platforms give users unconditional ownership of the Copyright of material created, while others may only give users Creative Commons (CC) licences. 

It is important to check the terms and conditions of the individual OpenAI platform you generate material from and see what they say about how to credit the copyright. 

Unless the Terms and Conditions state otherwise or the material is CC, label works created using Generative AI, as follows: 

This work has been generated using artificial intelligence. Any copyright subsisting in this work is owned by North Metropolitan TAFE, [Year]. 

Example:

This work has been generated using Canva AI. Any copyright subsisting from this work is owned by North Metropolitan TAFE, 2023.

Remember: Terms and Conditions of Generative AI platforms are subject to change, please ensure you check them before attributing copyright, even if you have used the platform before. 

Further information and about Generative AI platforms and Copyright go to Smartcopying’s fact sheet, Using Generative AI Platforms in TAFEs, click the link below:

Using Generative AI Platforms in TAFEs

For labelling CC material visit the library’s guide for Finding & Using CC & OER Resources, click the link below:

Finding & Using CC & OER Resources