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APA Quick Referencing: Audio Visual

Referencing a DVD

Audio visual materials include DVDs, CD-ROMs, television broadcasts/series, podcasts and audio recordings.

The information required when referencing a DVD in a Reference List is:

  • author or producer or director (surname and initials)
  • year of production (in brackets)
  • title (in italics)
  • medium [DVD]
  • publisher or distributor

Examples of Audio Visual Materials

Material Type In-Text Reference Reference List
 DVD  (Haarsma, 2010)  Haarsma, F. (Producer). (2010). Healthy bodies: An introduction to the human body [DVD].
         Ideas that Work.
 DVD (Movie)  (Stenders, 2011)  Stenders, K. (Director). (2011). Red dog [DVD]. Roadshow Entertainment.
 TV Program:   from Series  (Fleming, 2011)  Fleming, D. (Producer). (2011, September 5). Paint the town black. [TV series episode].
         In Australian Story. ABC Television.
 TV Series  (Kring, 2008)  Kring, T. (Producer)(2008)Heroes [TV series]Seven Corporation.       


 (Reid, 2004)  Reid, N. (Producer). (2004). Phonetics: An interactive introduction [CD]. 
        University of New England.
 Podcast (Swan, 2013)  Swan, N. (Producer). (2013, September 2). Inattention is a major fact in road accidents
            [Audio podcast]. Health Report. ABC Radio National.


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State the format of the audio visual material in square brackets.

For example: [DVD], [CD], [TV series], [TV series episode], [Audio podcast].