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APA Quick Referencing: End-Text Rules

Parts of an End-Text Reference

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Remember the 4 W's - Who? When? What? Where?

Book Magazine or Journal Article

 wrote or edited the book - author or editor

 When it was written - year

 What it is - title of book

 Who produced it - publisher's name  

 wrote the article - author

 When it was written - year

 What it is - title of article and name of journal or magazine

 Where the article is located - volume,  issue and  page numbers

Webpage DVD

created the website - author or sponsor or  organisation

 When it was created or updated - year

 What it is - title of webpage

 Where you located it - URL or web address

created the DVD - producer or director

 When it was created - year

 What it is - title of DVD and medium

 Who produced it - name of publisher or distributor

General Rules for End-Text References

Rules for your Reference List:

   List references in alphabetical order by the name of the author, editor, sponsor
   Where there is no author, use the title
   Use italics (if word processed) or underlining (if hand written) to indicate titles
   Separate each element of the citation with a full stop
   Second and subsequent lines of a citation should be indented 5 spaces

Sample Reference List


Baker, C. (2004). Western Australia: Short stay guide. Little Hills Press.

Chau, R. (2007). Perth and Western Australia. Lonely Planet. 

Fremlin, B. (1986). A wild heritage of Western Australia. St Georges Books.

Kirwan, J. H. (2008).Quokka [Image].

O’Brien, K., & Swaffer, A. (2005). West Coast Australia. Footprint.

Rottnest Island Authority. (n.d.). Quokkas.


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Titles of books, magazines, journals, newspapers, webpages and DVDs should be placed in italics (if word processed) or underlined (if hand written).

Format Descriptions

The format description is placed in square brackets after the title and is used for the following sources:

[Audio podcast]
[Digital video]
[Lecture notes]
[PowerPoint presentation]
[Television series]



When citing the publisher of a book, do not include terms such as Publishers, Co. or Inc.

Instead, provide the information as briefly as possible. 
           Image courtesy S. Miles



To create a hanging indent in Word, highlight the text and press Ctrl + T.