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APA Quick Referencing: In-Text Rules

General Rules for In-Text Citations

      For an in-text citation include the author's surname, year of publication and page number (if appropriate).
The citation should be inserted where the information is used.
Place it near the beginning or at the end of a sentence or paragraph so it doesn't disrupt the flow of the writing.

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Examples of In-Text Citations

 Page numbers are not required if you are paraphrasing or summarising the work as a whole.

(no page numbers)

         A recent study by Williams (2013) has shown that there is...

Howard and Jones (2012) highlighted the need for...

        ...just as the scientists had predicted (Davis, 2010).

        As stated on their website (Department of Transport, 2013)...  
 Page numbers are included if you are quoting or using precise information such as statistics.

(with page numbers)

          Experiments by Brown (2011, p. 55) confirmed that "..." 

 As tabled in the report by the Conservation Commission (2013. p. 22)... the survey results showed (Jackson, 2010, p. 12).

The Macquarie Dictionary (2012, p. 97) defines...

Paraphrasing V Summarising Information

     Paraphrasing - to reword someone else's thoughts or ideas in your own words.
     Summarising - to provide a brief account of someone else's ideas or work.

Quoting Information

A quotation is when you copy exactly word for word from another source. 

Short Quotations (less than 40 words)

These are set out within the body of the text and are enclosed with double quotation marks. For example:

Over the past few decades, the rates of obesity in Australia have increased significantly. Statistics reveal that "in 2007–08, 1 in 4 adults and 1 in 12 children were obese; this equates to almost 3 million people" (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012, p. 16). 

Long Quotations
 (more than 40 words)

These are indented and double spaced. Begin them on a new line. For example:

Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable cause of ill health and death in Australia. It contributes to

more hospitalisations and deaths each year than alcohol and illicit drug use combined. Rates of smoking

have been falling for decades in Australia. Overall, 15% of Australians aged 14 or older now smoke daily,

compared with 30% in 1985. (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2012, p.13)



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Personal communications such as emails, interviews or telephone conversations are cited in-text but not in the Reference List.

For example: 
T. Cross (Personal communication, May 3, 2013) raised concerns...  

Reporting Verbs

Click here for a complete list of reporting verbs.



Paraphrasing and summarising ideas is preferable to using quotationsBy presenting the information in your own words, you demonstrate your understanding of the material that you have read.  
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